Site Index


Part I: Compressible Photon Flow, Relativity  and the Results of Michelson-Morley Type Experiments

( Page Posted Sept. 2004)


Part II; Tornado-genesis by an Isentropic Energy Transformation of Heat Differences into Wind Speed

(Page posted  June 2008)


Part III: Progress in Clean Energy Production by Isentropic Power Amplification of Linear Air Flow

(Page posted  July 2011)


Part IV: Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction


( Page Posted May 2013, Scroll Down for Summary)


Part V: The Soul/Body Problem: A New Proposed Solution --- Wave Interaction Dualism

( Posted June 2013 (Click to open)



Part VI: How did Life Originate? The Role of Cell Waves and Their Negative Entropy

(New Page. Posted Sept  2016)


Part VII: (B) What is Human Life? A Classical Viewpoint with  a Verifiable Scientific  Hypothesis

(New Page Posted November 2016)



WEBSITE INTRODUCTION                                                      


This Website presents applications of standard compressible flow theory to various energy flows. It arises from treating the energy flows and associated transformation of matter as being compressible.


The Site has a double purpose. First it is intended to serve as a detailed adjunct to the scientific aspects of a Shroud of Turin Science Website( where the theory of compressible energy flow is applied to the radiation theory of image formation on the Shroud.


Second it is a stand alone, expanded presentation of the theory of compressible energy flow to various applications.


In Part I, the theory of compressible flow is applied to the nature of relativity in physics. Full text at: Compressible Photon Flow and the Results of Michelson-Morley Type Experiments


In Part II, the theory of compressible flow is applied to the initial stages of formation of tornadoes. Full text at: Tornado-genesis by an Isentropic Transformation of Hest Differences into Wind Speed


In Part III, the theory of compressible flow is applied to a clean energy, air motor invention. Full text at: Progress in Clean Energy Production by Isentropic Amplification of Linear Air Flow


            Section 1:  Linear ( streamline) Flow  and Flow Energy Amplification


            Section 2: Invention No. 1:  A New Air Motor and  Clean Energy Source


            Section 3: To be posted in the  near future


            Section 4: Flow Acceleration and Centrifugal Force as a Possible Cause of the  Observed Temperature Rise Anomaly in the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube



In Part IV, the theory of compressible flow is applied to a new insight into tornado intensity  limits and tornado intensity prediction.  Full text at: Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction


In Part V the problem of Dualism in soul/body theories is reexamined


In Part VI a new  origin of life mechanism is proposed which supplies  Irwin Schrödinger’s negative entropy proposal  with a physical mechanism namely that of stress/strain waves in the cell cytoplasm.


In Part VII the new origin of life theory is extended to include  Hunan Life



Copyright © 2016 Bernard A. Power














Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits

 and Intensity Prediction

(May 2013)




Part 1: New Insights into Tornado Structure and Wind Speed


1.0  Introduction: Some  insights into the transformation of atmospheric heat to  tornado wind speed

1.1  Rare miniature whirlwind  occurring in warm, clear weather over a calm, cool lake 

1.2 The structure of this strange, tiny whirlwind.  Reasons why it is not a heat engine

1.3  An alternative explanation: The vortex flow involves  an   isentropic speed-up   

1.4  A suggested sequence for the evolution of the  mini-vortex

Conclusions: Part 1



Part 2.  Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction

2.1  Vortex feature in general

2. 2 Vortex motions; The Rankine Combined Vortex

2.3  The source of the rotation needed in the vortex core

2.4  The driving pressure difference and “throughflow”, or mass rate of flow of the tornado

2.5  Other types of tornado- like vortices

2.6  Satellite vortices, sub-vortices and “suction” vortices

                           2.7  Summary of main tornado  features

                           2.8 A method of  estimating  tornado wind intensity limits from air mass humidity

                             2.9  A unifying, vortex structural and  thermodynamic element: A flow condensation discontinuity 


3.0 Conclusions





Tornados are the most violent wind storms known, sometimes reaching wind speeds of around 250  to 300 mph. ( 112 to 134 m/s) [1].   However, there seems to be  no compelling theoretical reason why  they shouldn’t  continue  to increase in speed right up to  the sonic speed of  around 700 mph. ( 313 m/s). Fortunately for us, they don’t.  So the question arises: What  limits tornado wind intensity  to less than  300 mph?


Tornadoes usually are accompanied by, or grow out of, violent thunderstorm clouds whose complexity  makes it very difficult  to know where to start for an adequate understanding  of their structure and mechanism. In addition, tornadoes are seemingly a composite of two different types of air flows having opposite flow properties--- a small central core of rotating fluid is smoothly surrounded  by a much larger area of circulating but non-rotating fluid, yet all the while the tornado somehow maintains a unified continuous flow system through the two different types of  air flow,  from inflow at  ground level to outflow in the  parent storm cloud above. It is quite puzzling.



However, a fortuitous observation of a very simple, rare, mini- vortex over a calm cool lake in  fine weather  in the Laurentian Mountains,  north of Montreal, points to one unexpected feature,  namely that vortex swirl velocities are apparently produced by only small temperature  changes of  a degree or two in  an adiabatic/isentropic vortex inflow process , rather than by the  inefficient heat engine process usually proposed, which conclusion  should apply to full scale tornadoes as well. 




Three new insights will be the subject of this Website. The first is  that the main speed-up process in a tornado may be a clear air, isentropic/adiabatic  transformation of small amounts of internal heat of the  air flow into  the observed  high vortex wind speeds, and second, that this high speed- up, isentropic flow process  is terminated by the formation of the tornado funnel cloud which releases latent heat of condensation into the vortex as the funnel cloud forms and thereby stops the high speed- up, isentropic  phase completely and allows a heat engine process to take over; this presents the possibility of predicting the general level of tornado intensity on a given day from the relative humidity of the air masses involved.    Third , this same condensation discontinuity in the flow also introduces fluid rotation directly into the core where it is needed to stabilise the vortex. 


We should note that an enormous amount of data and theoretical insight already exists on tornado structure and dynamics, and that the new insights offered here must be evaluated within the framework of this existing knowledge.




For full text go to:  Part IV: Tornado Structure, Intensity Limits and Intensity Prediction



Copyright © 2013 Bernard A. Power